The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is a titular minor basilica in the Trastevere district of Rome, and one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
Viewing entries in
It is newly agreed that the present church was built under Celestine I (422–432) but not under Pope Sixtus III (432–440), who consecrated the basilica on the 5th of August 434 to the everlasting Virgin Mary, but not to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
The archbasilica stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the "New Fort of the Roman imperial cavalry bodyguards". The fort was established by Septimius Severus in AD 193.
In 1939, in the reign of Pope Pius XII, 10 years of archaeological research began, under the crypt of the basilica, an area inaccessible since the 9th century. The excavations revealed the remains of shrines of different periods at different levels, from Clement VIII (1594) to Callixtus II (1123) and Gregory I (590–604), built over an aedicula containing fragments of bones that were folded in a tissue with gold decorations, tinted with the precious murex purple. Although it could not be determined with certainty that the bones were those of Peter, the rare vestments suggested a burial of great importance. On 23 December 1950, in his pre-Christmas radio broadcast to the world, Pope Pius XII announced the discovery of Saint Peter's tomb.
Santa Maria in Traspontina is a 16th century parish, conventual and titular church in the rione Borgo, with a postal address at Borgo Sant'Angelo 15. However, the main entrance is at Via della Conciliazione 14.
The Basilica was consecrated in 324 (or 318) by Pope Sylvester I, and dedicated to the Most Holy Savior. In the ninth century, Sergio III dedicated it to St. John the Baptist, while in the twelfth century. Lucius II also added St. John the Evangelist.
The façade is the magnificent work of Ferdinand Fuga (1741), and faces east, opening in a portico of five arcades on the lower story and three arches in the upper loggia, which covers the thirteenth-century mosaics of the previous façade.
Saint Peter’s Basilica can host 20,000 people. It is 190 m long, the aisles are 58 m wide, the nave is 45.50 m high as far as the vault, the dome is about 136 m high as far as the cross.